Fertilizing

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Major Nutrients  

Minor Nutrients

Micronutrients

Let's first cover some basic concepts.  Fertilizing is not feeding.  Fertilizing is more like taking vitamin supplements.  What plants 'eat' is sunlight and carbon dioxide and water - the raw ingredients of photosynthesis - which are used to make starches and sugars, which are what plants burn as food.  What we add as fertilizer are elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, sulfur, magnesium etc.  These are comparable to vitamin and mineral supplements, not bread.

No fertilizer can ever replace inadequate sunlight.  Each species of plant has an inborn requirement for a certain amount of direct sunlight (sunlight falling directly on the leaves, not just an absence of night).  Planting a plant in too much shade will starve it, and adding extra fertilizer will never make up for that, since fertilizer is not food.  Roses require full-day sun, especially in our cloudy climate.

Plants absorb nutrients by the roots, from the soil water.  Nutrients must be dissolved in water, and in the correct chemical form, to be absorbed by plant roots.  Soil pH, water content, mineral content, and the proportions of clay and organic matter compared to sand and gravel will determine what chemical form nutrients will be in, and whether or not they will be in solution and available to plant roots.  Most nutrients are most available at pHs ranging from 5.5 to 7.5.  Magnesium and molybdenum require the higher pHs, and iron, copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt require the lower pHs.

Another basic concept is the differences between organic fertilizers, and non-organic.  Non-organic fertilizers may be called chemical, or synthetic, or conventional.  On this website we will use the term synthetic.  Organic fertilizers come from once-living tissues, either plant or animal, or from other naturally-occurring sources such as greensand or rock phosphate.  Synthetic fertilizers are manufactured in chemical plants, although they may use natural sources for feedstock.

Proponents of synthetic versus organic fertilizers will say that plants don't care where nitrogen comes from.  This is true, to an extent.  It's equally true that human bodies don't care where sugar comes from.  But which is healthier for you to eat:  an apple, where the sugar is in the form of fructose, or a spoonful of table sugar, which is pure sucrose.  What your body burns is sucrose, but eating table sugar is not the same as eating an apple!  The sucrose you get from eating an apple is released slowly, preventing a sugar-rush (and the development of adult-onset diabetes), and is accompanied by many other necessary things such as fiber, minerals and vitamins, and tiny traces of proteins.  Similarly, applying nitrogen in the form of ammonium or nitrate creates a 'nitrogen-rush', overwhelming the ability of the plants to absorb the nitrogen, and of the soil to store it for later use; it also deprives the soil of other necessary compounds contained in organic sources like humic and fulvic acids, chelating compounds, amino acids and micronutrients.  It can also damage the soil by poisoning soil microbes through the release of ammonia gas.  Synthetic fertilizers may be high in the macronutrients such as nitrogen, but most don't contain any nutrients beyond the big 3 - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Minor nutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are more common in gardens fertilized solely with synthetic fertilizers.

There are situations where synthetic fertilizers will be best, and those where organic will be best.  Most gardens will benefit from the use of both types of fertilizers over the course of the year.

Information on soil-nutrient cycles on this website comes from The Nature and Properties of Soils, 13th Edition; Brady, NC and Weil, RR. 2002, Prentice Hall, publishers.  Information on fertilizers comes from WSU-Extension.

 

Major Nutrients

The major nutrients are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K).  These are the nutrients that plants need the most of.  When you buy fertilizer, the three numbers on the label refer to the amounts of these three major nutrients, in the order given.  An 8-4-4 fertilizer is 8% nitrogen, 4% phosphate (P2O5) and 4% potash (K2O).  These are the only three nutrients required to be on the fertilizer label.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is by far the most limiting nutrient in our soils, which are leached of nutrients by the rain.  If you do nothing else for your roses, give them nitrogen.

Nitrogen occurs in many forms:  N2 (atmospheric nitrogen), NO3 (nitrate) and NH4 (ammonium) in particular.  Plants absorb nitrate and ammonium from the soil through their roots, but since these forms of nitrogen are rather water-soluble, they are lost from the soil pretty quickly if not absorbed.  Synthetic fertilizers contain ammonium and nitrate nitrogen.  Nitrogen can also be applied in organic form, such as compost or blood meal.  Protein, both animal and vegetable, is an organic form of nitrogen.  Organic forms of nitrogen are much more stable in the soil than the nitrate and ammonium forms, but they're not available for plant absorption until they're converted to nitrate and ammonium by soil microbes. 

Good sources of organic nitrogen are animal remains, such as fish fertilizers or blood meal, and legumes, such as clover, vetch, or alfalfa.  Animal protein contains a lot of nitrogen, and legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen, so can be high in nitrogen also.  Alders are nitrogen-fixers too, so if you have access to alder leaves, use them in compost and mulch!  Alders actually fix more nitrogen than peas and beans.  Chicken manure also contains a good amount of nitrogen, since birds eliminate urine and solid waste mixed together - it's the urine that has the nitrogen.  Roses love chicken manure.  Mammals separate the two wastes, so animal manures are not good sources of nitrogen, except in composted horse or rabbit bedding, where the animal has been urinating on the bedding.

Common, inexpensive lawn fertilizers use ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, or urea to supply a lot of nitrogen.  These fertilizers tend to make soil more acid, and our soils are plenty acid as they are.  Avoid these fertilizers, especially in the rose garden.

Nitrogen is stored in the soil as organic matter, or as ammonium adsorbed onto clay and humus particles.  Typically our soils are very low in clay and humus, so there's little storage capacity for nitrogen.  Adding organic matter in the form of compost and manures will increase both the storage capacity and the nitrogen itself, as well as stimulating the soil microbes necessary to convert organic N to nitrate and ammonium.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus (P) is the second of the major nutrients listed on fertilizer labels, and like nitrogen is a basic building block of all life, animal and vegetable.  But where nitrogen is stored in soil in organic forms and is relatively readily transformed into plant-available forms, phosphorus is stored in unavailable, insoluble mineral forms.  Plant-available phosphorus occurs as phosphate, PO4.  However, within hours of applying phosphate fertilizer, the phosphate molecules bind to minerals and clay particles in the soil to form unavailable, insoluble phosphorus compounds.  These compounds tend to become more tightly bound, and more insoluble, as time progresses, unlike nitrogen compounds which can be broken down by microbes over time.  Organic forms of phosphorus can be broken down over time, but once the phosphorus is released from the organic form, it is also quickly bound up in mineral and clay particles.  There's a rather short window of opportunity for plants to absorb dissolved phosphorus before it's bound up by the soil and lost to the plants, or lost through leaching and erosion.  So, soluble phosphate must be continually added to the soil, either through the breakdown of organic matter, or repeated applications of phosphate.  The tricky part is that excess phosphate is easily eroded away into streams, where it's a serious pollutant and potentially leads to death of aquatic life such as salmon and trout.

Phosphate availability peaks at soil pH of about 6.5.  Little phosphate will be available below about pH 5.5, or above pH 7.  Phosphates are also more available to plants that have mycorrhizal fungi associated with their roots.  The mycorrhizae extend the effective root zone of the plant by as much as ten times, reaching out to phosphate ions before they are locked up by the soil.

Potentially available phosphorus is stored in the soil in the form of organic matter, adsorbed onto clay particles, and in iron oxides.  Microbial breakdown of organic matter can provide a slow but relatively steady stream of available phosphate to plants.  Some phosphate can be made available from that stored on clay and in oxides, but not much.  Organic matter also itself binds to the same compounds that bind up phosphorus, reducing the phosphorus-binding capacity of the soil, and increasing available phosphorus as a result.

Manures, fish fertilizers, and bone meal are good sources of organic phosphorus.  Rock phosphate is a natural form of phosphate, but is relatively unavailable.  Triple super phosphate is a synthetic phosphate form, and has a high percentage of available phosphate compared to rock phosphate, high enough to cause pollution problems if used regularly.

Does your garden need phosphorus?  How much? Hard to say.  Use a soil test to see how much phosphorus the soil already has.  If it's low, adding organic matter will both add phosphate and keep it from being tied up in the soil.  When planting new roses, add a little bit of phosphate fertilizer with the backfill along the sides of the hole (not at the bottom).  Placing phosphates in the vicinity of the plant's roots will help the plant reach the phosphate before it's lost to leaching or adsorption.  Avoiding practices that discourage mycorrhizal fungi helps too, such as fungicide sprays that drip onto the ground, frequent soil tilling, and use of super triple phosphate.

Potassium

Potassium is the third element listed on fertilizer labels.  Potassium is not exactly a building block.  It is used in a variety of critical chemical reactions, but is not used to build tissue.  Still, plants need about as much potassium as they do nitrogen, and much more than they do phosphorus.  Unlike phosphorus and nitrogen, most soils have plenty of potassium, which is continually made available to plants through natural mineral decomposition, if only in small amounts.  Fertile soils that don't have their plant material harvested and removed, or that are regularly composted, may not need additional potassium from fertilizers.

Most potassium in soil is part of mineral complexes, particularly clays.  Physical and chemical decomposition (not microbial) releases potassium from its parent minerals.  Potassium in the simple ionic form K+ is what plants can absorb.  K+ floats around in soil water, or adsorbs onto clay particles and soil organic matter.  Sandy soils low in clays and organic matter tend to not have much potassium available for plants.  Potassium is available to plants at a wide range of soil pHs.

Potassium in fertilizers is listed as K2O, or potash.  In our sandy soils, especially when growing roses, some potassium will probably have to be added as fertilizer.  Seaweed or kelp meal, fish meal, and wood ashes are all good organic sources of potassium.  Wood ashes in fact can add too much, creating toxic conditions.  WSU recommends one cup of wood ashes per rose bush every two years - not every year, and no more than one cup at a time.  Chicken manure and alfalfa are also good organic sources of potassium.  Greensand is a very good source of potassium.  Synthetic sources of potassium include potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium magnesium sulfate (sul-po-mag).  You will probably want to apply potassium as part of a balanced fertilizer, however, as it is unlikely your garden will need potassium only, and not nitrogen also.

Minor Nutrients

The minor nutrients are sulfur (S), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg).  They're called 'minor' nutrients only because they're needed in smaller amounts than the major nutrients, not because they're any less necessary for plant health.  All three tend to be low in western Washington soils.

Sulfur

Although not required in as large amounts as the major nutrients, sulfur is often deficient enough to limit plant growth.  Sulfur, like nitrogen, is used in building proteins and amino acids.  Unlike nitrogen, sulfur is not typically included in all-purpose synthetic fertilizers, or the amounts are too low for sulfur-deficient soils.  Before the Clean Air Act, sulfur in the air from burning coal and smelting metals would settle on the ground and add sulfur, so fertilizers didn't need to add very much (never mind the damage the sulfur caused to our lungs).  Now with cleaner air, we need to add more sulfur to our gardens.

Plant-available sulfur occurs as sulfate, SO4.  Like nitrogen, most sulfur in the soil is stored as various organic compounds that must be decomposed to the sulfate form by soil microbes.  Sulfate can be easily leached from the soil.  Clays and organic matter can hold sulfate in the soil, and release it slowly for plant uptake.  Like potassium, sulfate is available at a wide range of soil pHs.

Good sources of sulfur are alfalfa meal, seaweed and kelp meal, fish meal, gypsum, Epsom salt, potassium sulfate, iron sulfate, and sul-po-mag.  Any animal flesh-based fertilizer should supply some sulfur.  Sulfur-based fungicides may add sulfur to the soil as well; typically, only a small percentage of garden sprays stay on the foliage, and quite a bit ends up on the soil.  Do not add elemental sulfur to your garden.  Elemental sulfur can make your soil extremely acidic, potentially poisonously so, and can leach lethal acidity into any nearby streams or ponds.

Calcium

Calcium (Ca) is one of the most abundant nutrients in the soil, but can become deficient in plants due to either too-low pH, or inadequate soil moisture.  Calcium is most available to plants at pHs ranging from 6-9, so it is possible for garden soil in our area to be too acidic for good calcium availability.  Summer drought can also make calcium unavailable to plants, as calcium is picked up and transported passively through transpiration of soil water, not by active translocation or ion diffusion.   Calcium weathers from the minerals the soil is made from, and then attaches to clay or humus particles, from which it is picked up by plants.  Our soils are deficient in the clay and humus particles needed to keep calcium available, so it leaches away (leaching of calcium is also what leads to our soil being so acid).  Adding lime both raises the soil pH and adds calcium.

Compost and manures are also good sources of calcium, and add the organic matter necessary to keep calcium from leaching away.

Magnesium

Magnesium (Mg) is a central element of chlorophyll, the molecules responsible for photosynthesis.  Magnesium is not as abundant in the soil as calcium is, but it is not needed in as large amounts either.  Like calcium, plants get most of their magnesium from that held on clay and organic particles.  Magnesium is most available in alkaline soils rather than acidic ones, with only minor availability at soil pH of 6.  Dolomitic lime is a good source of magnesium, along with compost and manures.  Magnesium can be deficient in western Washington soils, so we recommend liming with dolomitic lime rather than plain lime. 

Micronutrients

Micronutrients, basically, are trace minerals.  The main micronutrients are iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), boron (B), cobalt (Co), chlorine (Cl), and nickel (Ni).  They are used in a variety of enzymes and metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis and oxidation/reduction reactions.  Most micronutrients are most available in slightly acidic soils.  Most are not particularly deficient in western Washington soils.  Iron deficiency can be a problem with roses at higher pHs.  While the required amounts of micronutrients are small, so are the toxic levels.  You can poison your plants by over-applying micronutrients, so follow label directions when applying synthetic micronutrient fertilizers, or when liming.

Micronutrients come from the minerals that make up the soil, and are released as the parent minerals break down through weathering and chemical decomposition.  Ionic micronutrients react with other minerals to become unavailable to plants.  Organic matter can hold micronutrients in forms that are relatively available to plants.  Microbial decomposition of the organic matter releases the micronutrients.  Soil pH has a large effect on availability of micronutrients.  Iron and zinc deficiencies are common in neutral or alkaline soils, and can occur in soils that have had too much lime added.  Dolomite in particular can cause zinc deficiencies if too much is applied, through antagonism between zinc and magnesium, so check your pH every year or two before liming!  Iron and zinc deficiencies can also be caused by over-application of phosphate fertilizers.

You may have seen fertilizers labeled as containing "chelated" iron.  Chelates are complexes of certain micronutrients (the positively charged ones like iron and zinc) with organic molecules, to form compounds that can hold the micronutrients in a form that is available to plants.  Chelated micronutrients are much slower to form unavailable compounds, or to leach away.  Chelating compounds occur naturally in organic material in the soil, or can be synthesized to make chelated fertilizers.  Plant roots are able to take the micronutrient directly from the chelate, and release the chelating compound back to the soil.

Compost and manures are excellent sources of most micronutrients.  Gardens that are routinely composted or manured may not need any other source of micronutrients.  Seaweed and kelp provide micronutrients.  Something called "spoiled legume hay" is also listed as an excellent source of micronutrients - probably something akin to alfalfa tea, alfalfa being a legume hay, and the tea-making process involving fermentation and decomposition.  Sewage sludge, like Tagro, is a very good source of micronutrients, but can also contain unwanted heavy metals, so use in moderation (and only on ornamentals, never edibles).  Sawdust, bark, and wood chips, while not normally recommended as soil amendments due to very low nitrogen content, can provide micronutrients.  These wood wastes decompose very slowly and are best used as mulches rather than soil amendments.

 

 

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